La Dieta como Terapia Complementaria en la Psoriasis

Grégory Alfonso García Morán, Ananías García Cardona, Alejandra Téllez Lozada, Carlos Javier Ramos Silva

Resumen


La Psoriasis es una enfermedad crónica, inmune-mediada, inflamatoria (autoinmune y / o autoinflamatoria), resultado de factores genéticos, epigenéticos, ambientales y de estilo de vida, que es patogénicamente impulsada por citoquinas proinflamatorias. La psoriasis, frecuentemente se desarrolla al desencadenarse eventos de naturaleza lesional mecánica, y conduce a una mayor proliferación, y daño en la diferenciación de los queratinocitos de la epidermis.

Hasta la fecha, se han aclarado varios mecanismos inmunopatológicos de la Psoriasis, y, la dinámica entre las células T autorreactivas y queratinocitos, que genera eventos inflamatorios inmunes responsables de la iniciación, progresión y la persistencia de la enfermedad. Se han identificado, varios autoantígenos derivados de queratinocitos (complejos de catelecidina / ácido nucleico LL37, autoantígenos lipídicos recién generados), que pueden desencadenar la activación inicial de células T, particularmente células T productoras de IL-17 (Th17), T helper (Th) 1 y células Th22. Por lo tanto, citoquinas liberadas en lesiones de la piel, son fundamentales para la activación de los queratinocitos, y la producción de moléculas proinflamatorias, que a su vez conducen a la amplificación de la respuesta inmune. Las alteraciones genéticas intrínsecas de los queratinocitos en la activación de la transducción de señales, y las vías de los segundos mensajeros que dependen de las citoquinas derivadas de las células T, también son clave.

Paralelamente, ha surgido un importante cuerpo de información científica que demuestra el papel de la Nutrición y la Dietética, en las diferentes áreas de esta enfermedad. El objetivo, de esta breve revisión, es mostrar y conjuntar, diferentes investigaciones con buena evidencia médica clínica, que sacan a la luz, el papel de diferentes moléculas de la dieta, en la Inmunología de esta enfermedad.


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